Bokbot: interview accordée au quotidien Aujourdhui le Maroc

URL de cet article: http://www.aujourdhui.ma/culture-details58832.html

             Numéro de Parution: 1570
         Date de     publication :        25-12-2007

 

        Dr. Youssef Bokbot : «Ces découvertes nous renseignent sur le Maroc d’il y a 5000 ans».  Youssef Bokbot, chef du département de préhistoire à l’Institut national des sciences de l’archéologie et du patrimoine (INSAP), revient sur les découvertes archéologiques, les mois derniers, dans la grotte d’Ifri n’Amr ou Moussa (Khémisset).   



ALM- Vous avez dernièrement annoncé avoir fait des découvertes archéologiques importantes. De quoi s’agit-il exactement?

 
Dr. Youssef Bokbot : Ces programmes ont la particularité d’être exclusivement marocains. Jamais des fouilles archéologiques ne l’ont été jusqu’alors. Depuis 2004, il a été décidé avec le ministère de la Culture d’entamer un programme marocain avec les communes locales, dont celle de Aït Siberne à Oued Beht dans la province de Khémisset, en contribution avec le conseil de Rabat-Zemmour. Le potentiel humain marocain (chercheurs et scientifiques) n’a rien à envier à celui des Européens.


Nous disposons des moyens logistiques nécessaires pour mener à bien ces opérations de fouilles après lesquelles s’engage le traitement des découvertes. Nous avons accès au laboratoire de la gendarmerie royale (Larates) pour la datation au carbone 14. Toutefois, il reste à financer d’autres analyses (organique, chimique et physique) qui sont, dans la majorité des cas, disponibles dans les laboratoires européens.    

ALM- Quel est l’intérêt des fouilles effectuées dans la grotte d’Ifri n’Amr ou Moussa à Oued Beht ?

      

 
Dr. Youssef Bokbot : En deux années de recherche dans cette grotte, nous avons fait des découvertes incomparables et fructueuses aussi bien en qualité qu’en quantité. Les fouilles dans cette grotte à elle seule sont capables de nous renseigner sur une période obscure de l’histoire du Maroc, le chalcolithique ( Chalco qui veut dire en latin cuivre, et lithe, pierre). Cette période datant de 3000-1800 avant J.C qui est appelée communément, «âge de cuivre» est représentée au Maroc par les vestiges de la civilisation nommée «campaniforme».


Avant ces fouilles, nous avions l’habitude de trouver des éléments épars de cette civilisation. Et là, dans cette grotte, nous avons la panoplie complète de ce qu’un archéologue peut espérer : de nombreux éléments de la vie quotidienne et plusieurs sépultures en bon état de conservation. Il y a des objets et des outils en cuivre, en os et aussi des parures façonnées en ivoire d’une qualité artistique sans pareille, dignes des plus grands musées du monde. Toutes ces découvertes nous ramènent aux grandes interrogations de la communauté scientifique internationale sur cette civilisation.

Dr. Youssef Bokbot :
ALM- Comment évaluez-vous l’intérêt scientifique de ces découvertes?


Dr. Youssef Bokbot : La plupart des scientifiques considéraient que les traces de la civilisation campaniforme existantes au Maroc étaient importées de la péninsule ibérique suite à des invasions de ce peuple. Après des analyses génétiques des sépultures que nous avons découvert et leur comparaison avec les populations locales et ibériques, nous pourrons réfuter ces hypothèses. Les objets trouvés, en particulier la céramique, distinguent les formes d’une civilisation marocaine de celles de la péninsule ibérique. D’ailleurs, dans ce sens, il a été découvert dans la péninsule ibérique assez d’objets façonnés en ivoire et en œuf d’autruche en provenance d’Afrique du nord. Nous pourrions donc croire à des échanges commerciaux entre deux civilisations campaniformes distinctes.

                               -------------------------

         Fouilles archéologiques dans le pays Zemmour

Les découvertes archéologiques qui ont eu lieu entre le 16 octobre et le 18 novembre 2007 dans la région de Oued Beht entrent dans le cadre d’un programme de recherche intitulé : «Néolithique et Protohistoire des plateaux de Zemmour». Elles ont permis la découverte de squelettes humains, de faune sauvage et domestique, de céramique, d’industrie osseuse et d’objet métallique, datant du chalcolithique (3000-1800 avant J.C). Ces vestiges mis à jour dans la grotte d’Ifri n’Amr ou Moussa (Commune des Aït Siberne, Oued Beht) témoignent de l’essor de la civilisation campaniforme (5000-3500 avant le présent) dans cette partie  des plateaux  de Zemmour et vont permettre d’éclaircir l’origine de cette civilisation et de son extension. À noter que cette civilisation de l’âge du cuivre s’est répandue dans toute l’Europe occidentale et une partie de l’Europe centrale. Ainsi, le Maroc présente l’originalité d’être le seul pays d’Afrique à avoir connu cette culture protohistorique. Par ailleurs, la fouille a révélé des nodules de métal en cuivre rouge et en plomb, qui pourraient supposer la fonte du métal sur place. Ce qui est, archéologiquement, très significatif.

  

Publié par : Mounir Siraj
Numéro de Parution: 1570
Date de publication : 25-12-2007
URL de cet article: http://www.aujourdhui.ma/culture-details58832.html

  
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